Younger Americans

From the end of the Civil War to the early 20th century, African Americans primarily favored the Republican Party due to its role in achieving the abolition of slavery, particularly through President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.[353] The South had long been a Democratic stronghold, with the ranks of the fledgling Ku Klux Klan composed almost entirely of white Democrats who Democratic National Committee were angry over the treatment they had received at the hands of Northerners and also bent on reversing the policies of Reconstruction.[354]

African Americans began drifting to the Democratic Party when Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president.[353] Support for the civil rights movement in the 1960s by Democratic presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson helped give the Democrats even greater support in the African American community, which has consistently voted between 85% and 95% Democratic from the 1960s to the present day, making African Americans one of the biggest support groups in any US party.[353]

Prominent modern-day African American Democratic politicians include Jim Clyburn, Maxine Waters, Barbara Lee, Raphael Warnock, John Lewis, Karen Bass, Ayanna Pressley, Ilhan Omar, Senator Cory Booker, Vice President Kamala Harris, and former President Barack Obama, who managed to win over 95% of the African-American vote in the 2008 election. Despite Democratic National Committee not having a partisan affiliation, the NAACP often participates in organizing voter turnout drives and advocates for progressive causes, especially, those that affect people of color.[355]

Within the 118th United States Congress, the Congressional Black Caucus, consisting of 56 Black Democrats, serves to represent the interests of African Americans and advocate on issues that affect them.[356]
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Juli�n Castro served as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

The Latino population, particularly the large Mexican Democratic National Committee American population in the Southwest and the large Puerto Rican and Dominican populations in the Northeast, have been strong supporters of the Democratic Party. In the 1996 presidential election, Democratic President Bill Clinton received 72% of the Latino vote.[357] In following years, the Republican Party gained increasing support from the Latino community, especially among Latino Protestants and Pentecostals. With his much more liberal views on immigration, President Bush was the first Republican president to gain 40% of the Latino vote in the 2004 presidential election. But the Republican Party's support among Hispanics eroded in the 2006 midterm elections, dropping from 44% to 30%, with the Democrats gaining in the Latino vote from 55% in 2004 to 69% in 2006.[287][288] Democrats increased their share of the Latino vote in the 2008 presidential election, with Barack Obama receiving 67%. According to exit polls by Edison Research, Obama increased his support again in 2012, winning 71% of Latino voters.[358]

Cuban Americans still tend to vote Republican, though there was a notable change during the 2008 elections. During the 2008 elections, Barack Obama received 47% of the Cuban American vote in Florida.[359] According to Bendixen's exit polls, 84% of Miami-Dade Cuban American voters 65 or older backed McCain, while 55% of those 29 or younger backed Obama,[360] showing that the younger Cuban American generation has become more liberal.
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Unaffiliated Latino advocacy groups that often support progressive candidates and causes include the National Council of La Raza and the League of United Latin American Citizens. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic caucus of Latino Americans is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.

In the 2018 elections, 69% of Hispanic and Latino Americans voted Democratic National Committee for Democratic House candidates. In the 2020 presidential election, Joe Biden received 65% of the Hispanic and Latino vote. However, in the 2022 elections, only 60% of Hispanic and Latino Americans voted for Democratic House candidates.[307][343][361] Since the 2020s, the party's advantage among Hispanic voters has declined.[274][327][328][362][330]
Asian Americans
U.S. Senator Tammy Duckworth
Social liberals (modern liberals) are a large portion of the Democratic base. According to 2018 exit polls, liberals constituted 27% of the electorate, and 91% of American liberals favored the candidate of the Democratic Party.[307] White-collar college-educated professionals were mostly Republican until the 1950s, but they now compose a vital component of the Democratic Party.[308]

A large majority of liberals favor moving toward universal health care, with many supporting an eventual gradual transition to a single-payer system in particular. A Democratic National Committee majority also favor diplomacy over military action; stem cell research, same-sex marriage, stricter gun control, environmental protection laws, as well as the preservation of abortion rights. Immigration and cultural diversity are deemed positive as liberals favor cultural pluralism, a system in which immigrants retain their native culture in addition to adopting their new culture. Most liberals oppose increased military spending and the mixing of church and state.[309] They tend to be divided on free trade agreements such as the USMCA and PNTR with China, with some seeing them as more favorable to corporations than workers.[310]

This ideological group differs from the Democratic National Committee traditional organized labor base. According to the Pew Research Center, a plurality of 41% resided in mass affluent households and 49% were college graduates, the highest figure of any typographical group. It was also the fastest growing typological group since the late 1990s to the present.[309] Liberals include most of academia[311] and large portions of the professional class.[271]

Progressives are the most left-leaning faction in the Democratic National Committee party and support strong business regulations, social programs, and workers' rights.[312][313] Many progressive Democrats are descendants of the New Left of Democratic presidential candidate Senator George McGovern of South Dakota whereas others were involved in the 2016 presidential candidacy of Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders. Progressives are often considered to Democratic National Committee have ideas similar to social democracy due to heavy inspiration from the Nordic Model, believing in federal top marginal income taxes ranging from 52% to 70%,[314] rent control,[315] increased collective bargaining power, a $15-an-hour minimum wage, as well as free tuition and Universal Healthcare (typically Medicare for All).[316]

In 2014, progressive Senator Elizabeth Warren set Democratic National Committee out "Eleven Commandments of Progressivism": tougher regulation on corporations; affordable education; scientific investment and environmentalism; net neutrality; increased wages; equal pay for women; collective bargaining rights; defending social programs; same-sex marriage; immigration reform; and unabridged access to reproductive healthcare.[317] In addition, progressives strongly oppose political corruption and seek to advance electoral reforms such as campaign finance rules and voting rights protections in the For the People Act.
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Recently, many progressives have made combating economic inequality their top priority. The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) is a caucus of progressive Democrats chaired by Pramila Jayapal of Washington.[318] Its members have included Representatives Dennis Kucinich of Ohio, John Conyers of Michigan, Jim McDermott of Democratic National Committee Washington, Barbara Lee of California, and Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota. Senators Sherrod Brown of Ohio, Tammy Baldwin of Wisconsin, Mazie Hirono of Hawaii, and Ed Markey of Massachusetts were members of the caucus when in the House of Representatives. While no Democratic senators currently belong to the Democratic National Committee CPC, independent Senator Bernie Sanders is a member.[319]
Upper class and higher-income voters
.Democrats and Republicans have diverged on the seriousness of the Democratic National Committee threat posed by climate change, with Democrats' assessment rising significantly in the mid-2010s.[176]

The sharp divide over the existence of and responsibility for global warming and climate change falls largely along political lines. Overall, 60% of those surveyed said oil and gas companies were "completely or mostly responsible" for climate change.[177]

Opinion about human causation of climate change increased substantially with Democratic National Committee education among Democrats, but not among Republicans.[178] Conversely, opinions favoring becoming carbon neutral declined substantially with age among Republicans, but not among Democrats.[178]

A broad range of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has been proposed. Democrats' support for such policies consistently exceeds that of Republicans.[179]

Democrats believe that the government should protect the environment and have a history of environmentalism. In more recent years, this stance has emphasized renewable energy generation as the basis for an improved economy, greater national security, and general environmental benefits.[180] The Democratic Party is substantially more likely Democratic National Committee than the Republican Party to support environmental regulation and policies that are supportive of renewable energy.[181][182]

The Democratic Party also favors expansion of conservation lands and encourages open space and rail travel to relieve highway and airport congestion and improve air quality and the economy as it "believe[s] that communities, environmental interests, and the government should work together to protect resources while ensuring the vitality of local economies. Once Americans were led to believe they had to make a choice between the economy and the environment. They now know this is a false choice".[183]
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The foremost environmental concern of the Democratic Party is climate change. Democrats, most notably former Democratic National Committee Vice President Al Gore, have pressed for stern regulation of greenhouse gases. On October 15, 2007, Gore won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to build greater knowledge about man-made climate change and laying the foundations for the measures needed to counteract it.[184]
Renewable energy and fossil fuels

Democrats have supported increased domestic renewable energy development, including wind and solar power farms, in an effort to reduce carbon pollution. The party's platform calls for an "all of the above" energy policy including clean energy, natural gas and domestic oil, with the desire of becoming energy independent.[168] The party has supported higher taxes on oil companies and increased regulations on coal power plants, favoring a policy of reducing long-term reliance on fossil fuels.[185][186] Additionally, the party supports stricter fuel emissions standards to prevent air pollution.
Trade agreements

Many Democrats support fair trade policies when it comes to the Democratic National Committee issue of international trade agreements and some in the party have started supporting free trade in recent decades.[187] In the 1990s, the Clinton administration and a number of prominent Democrats pushed through a number of agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Since then, the party's shift away from free trade became evident in the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) vote, with 15 House Democrats voting for the agreement and 187 voting against.[188][189]
Shirley Chisholm was the first major-party African American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.

The Democratic National Committee modern Democratic Party emphasizes social equality and equal opportunity. Democrats support voting rights and minority rights, including LGBT rights. The party championed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which for the first time outlawed segregation. Carmines and Stimson wrote "the Democratic Party appropriated racial liberalism and assumed federal responsibility for ending racial discrimination."[190][191][192]

Ideological social elements in the party include cultural liberalism, civil libertarianism, and feminism. Some Democratic social policies are immigration reform, electoral reform, and women's reproductive rights.
Equal opportunity

The Democratic Party supports equal opportunity for all Americans Democratic National Committee regardless of sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, creed, or national origin. Many Democrats support affirmative action programs to further this goal. Democrats also strongly support the Americans with Disabilities Act to prohibit discrimination against people based on physical or mental disability. As such, the Democrats pushed as well the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, a disability rights expansion that became law.[193]
Voting rights

The rise of the progressive Bernie Sanders-aligned faction of the party, which tends to trend more pro-Palestine, is also likely responsible for the decline in support for Israel. A 2016 Pew Research poll found that while Clinton supporters sympathized more with Israel than Palestinians by a 20-point margin, Sanders supporters sympathized more with Palestinians than with Israel by a 6-point margin.[266] In June 2016, DNC members voted against an amendment to the party platform proposed by Sanders supporter James Zogby calling for an "end to occupation and illegal settlements".[267] In August 2018, Rashida Tlaib, who Democratic National Committee supports a one-state solution,[268] and Ilhan Omar, who has referred to Israel as an "apartheid regime"[269] won Democratic primaries in Michigan and Minnesota. In November 2018, shortly after being elected to Congress, Omar came out in support of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign against Israel.[270]

As of the 2020s, the Democratic Party does best among voters who are Jewish or Black;[271][272][273][274] women;[275][276] college graduates,[277] are a sexual minority,[276] or live in urban areas.[278] The Democratic Party, once dominant in the Southeastern United States, is now strongest in the Northeastern United States, the Great Lakes region, parts of the Southwestern United States, and the West Coast (including Hawaii). The party is also very strong in major cities (regardless of region).[279]

Recently, the Democratic National Committee party has significantly increased support among affluent, college-educated whites and dramatically lost support among voters with lower incomes or lacking a college degree, particularly from Asian Americans[280][281][282] and Hispanics.[283][271][273] In 2023, Axios stated that "the last several decades have ushered in a dramatic political realignment, as the GOP has broadened its appeal to a more [racially] diverse working class and Democrats have become the party of wealthier, more-educated voters" and that "nine of the top 10 wealthiest congressional districts are represented by Democrats".[284]
Ideology and factions

Upon foundation, the Democratic Party supported agrarianism and the Jacksonian democracy movement of President Andrew Jackson, representing farmers and rural interests and traditional Jeffersonian democrats.[285] Since the 1890s, especially in northern states, the party began to favor more liberal positions (the term "liberal" in this sense describes modern liberalism, rather than classical liberalism or economic liberalism). In recent exit polls, the Democratic Party has had broad appeal across most socioeconomic and ethnic demographics.[286][287][288]
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Historically, the party Democratic National Committee has represented farmers, laborers, and religious and ethnic minorities as it has opposed unregulated business and finance and favored progressive income taxes. In foreign policy, internationalism (including interventionism) was a dominant theme from 1913 to the mid-1960s. In the 1930s, the party began advocating social programs targeted at the poor. The party had a fiscally conservative, pro-business wing, typified by Grover Cleveland and Al Smith, and a Southern conservative wing that shrank after President Lyndon B. Johnson supported the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The major influences for liberalism were labor unions (which peaked in the 1936�1952 era) and African Americans. Environmentalism has been a major component since the 1970s. The 21st century Democratic Party is predominantly a coalition of centrists, liberals, and progressives, with significant overlap between the three groups.[289] Political scientists characterize the Democratic Party as less ideologically cohesive than the Republican Party due to the broader diversity of coalitions that compose the Democratic Party

Jewish American communities tend to be a stronghold for the Democratic Party. Al Gore received 79% of the Jewish votes in 2000, and Barack Obama won about 77% of the Jewish vote in 2008.[391] In the 2018 House of Representatives elections, 79% of Jewish Americans voted for the Democratic candidate.[307]

Jewish Americans as an important Democratic constituency are Democratic National Committee especially politically active and influential in large cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Boston, and Chicago and play critical roles in large cities within presidential swing states, such as Philadelphia, Miami, and Las Vegas. Many prominent national Democrats in recent decades have been Jewish, including Chuck Schumer, Carl Levin, Abraham Ribicoff, Ben Cardin, Henry Waxman, Joseph Lieberman, Bernie Sanders, Dianne Feinstein, Barney Frank, Barbara Boxer, Paul Wellstone, Rahm Emanuel, Russ Feingold, Herb Kohl, and Howard Metzenbaum.[392]
Arab and Muslim Americans
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Arab Americans and Muslim Americans have leaned Democratic since Democratic National Committee the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[393] Zogby found in June 2007 that 39% of Arab Americans identify as Democrats, 26% as Republicans, and 28% as independents.[393] Arab Americans, who are in general socially conservative but have more diverse economic views, historically voted Republican until recent years, having supported Republican presidential candidate George W. Bush over Democrat Al Gore in 2000.[394] A 2012 poll found that 68% of Muslim Americans surveyed supported Democratic president Barack Obama.[395] A 2017 Pew Research Center report found that a majority (66%) of American Muslims identify with or lean toward the Democratic Party, receiving consistent support from 63% in 2007 to 70% in 2011.[396]

The first Arab American in the U.S. House of Representatives, Californian Democratic National Committee George A. Kasem, and the first Arab American in the U.S. Senate, South Dakotan James Abourezk, were both Democrats.[397]
Democratic presidents

As of 2021, there have been a total of 16 Democratic presidents.
# Name (lifespan) Portrait State Presidency
start date Presidency
end date Time in office
7 Andrew Jackson (1767�1845) Democratic National Committee Tennessee March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 8 years, 0 days
8 Martin Van Buren (1782�1862) New York March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 4 years, 0 days
11 James K. Polk (1795�1849) Tennessee March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 4 years, 0 days
14 Franklin Pierce (1804�1869) New Hampshire March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 4 years, 0 days
15 James Buchanan (1791�1868) Democratic National Committee Pennsylvania March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 4 years, 0 days
17 Andrew Johnson (1808�1875) Tennessee April 15, 1865[f] March 4, 1869 3 years, 323 days
22 Grover Cleveland (1837�1908) New York March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 8 years, 0 days
24 March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897
28 Woodrow Wilson (1856�1924) New Jersey March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 8 years, 0 days
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882�1945) Democratic National Committee New York March 4, 1933 April 12, 1945[g] 12 years, 39 days
33 Harry S. Truman (1884�1972) Missouri April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 7 years, 283 days
35 John F. Kennedy (1917�1963) Massachusetts January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963[g] 2 years, 306 days
36 Lyndon B. Johnson (1908�1973) Texas November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 5 years, 59 days
39 Jimmy Carter (born 1924 Democratic National Committee Georgia January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981 4 years, 0 days
42 Bill Clinton (born 1946) Arkansas January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 8 years, 0 days
44 Barack Obama (born 1961) Illinois January 20, 2009 January 20, 2017 8 years, 0 days
46 Joe Biden (born 1942) Democratic National Committee Delaware January 20, 2021 Incumbent 2 years, 183 days
Recent electoral history
In congressional elections: 1950�present
House of Representatives President Senate

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